--------------------------------DEFINITIONS and ABBREVIATIONS-----------------------------------------

AM - Amplitude Modulation - To vary the amplitude of a radio carrier wave in accordance with sound,
voice, or music

AOS - space communication jargon for Acquisition-Of-Signal

ARPA - (The Advanced Research Projects Agency) which later evolved into the World Wide Web - WWW

BFO - (Beat Frequency Oscillator) A circuit in a radio receiver, when switched on, it gives a tone sound to
steady carrier signals or Morse code (CW) signals.  Steady carrier and code signals would not (always) be
audible without the receiver BFO.  Sometimes,
nearby signals will mix with the desired steady carrier or
code and give them a tone sound without the BFO being on, while this is the BFO effect, it isn't
dependable in practice.

BP - Blood Pressure

CBS - Columbia Broadcasting System

CIA - is the Central Intelligence Agency of the U.S. Government that collects, analyzes, and coordinates spy
activity outside of the United States.

CO2 - chemical abbreviation for "carbon dioxide" a gas occupying less than 1 percent of Earth atmosphere-
CO2 - does not support life

CQ -  A shorthand code in radio jargon which is transmitted by morse code or voice. Calling "CQ" is an
invitation to engage in a conversation.

DOD - Department Of Defense

CW - Continuous Wave - on-off keying of a radio wave or Morse Code

Doppler Shift - (the result of the Doppler Effect) is the shift in frequency of acoustic waves or
electromagnetic waves as the source of these emissions moves relative to an observer and as they are
perceived by the observer. The shift is to higher frequencies when the source approaches (wave
compression =shorter wavelength=higher frequency) and to lower frequency when it moves away (wave
stretching=longer wavelength=lower frequency). The amount of plus and minus frequency shift from the
emitted (center) frequency is directly proportional to speed relative to a fixed point in space. Discovered
by Austrian physicist C.J. Doppler-1803-1853.  
See SPUTNIK REPLICA and listen to the rapidly changing
Doppler Shift indicating its nearest approach to my receive station.

Downlink - the radio transmission from a satellite (linked back down) to earth

FCC - Federal Communications Commission - USA Regulatory Agency over electronic communication

Fist - Every Morse code (CW) operator has a distinctive style of sending just like people have different
hand writing styles.  In radio jargon this is referred to as the operators "FIST".

GMT - abbreviation for "Greenwich Mean Time" also called "Zulu" time in military jargon.  UTC -Universal
Time Coordinated- is the most recent name

HF- abbreviation for High Frequency - from 3 to 30 Megahertz -more commonly known as Short-Wave or SW

HOLD - a delay in the countdown to a rocket launch

ICBM - abbreviation for "Intercontinental Ballistic Missile"

IC - "INTEGRATED CIRCUIT" - An early name for a Computer CHIP, containing thousands of electronic
components on a single CHIP of silicon.

Laika - (pronounced "LYE-kuh") means "barker" in Russian.  During training, she was nicknamed
Kudryavka, meaning "Little Curly".  Before her flight she was officially renamed Laika (Barker) after her
breed.  Laika was the first earthling to orbit the planet and she did not survive her mission.  She was part-
Samoyed terrier mix and weighed about 14 pounds / 6.3 kilograms.  As a stray, her age was uncertain but
some sources estimate she was about two or three years old at the time of her flight.  In some parts of the
world Laika is spelled Layka.

LOS - space communication jargon for Loss-Of-Signal

MAX-Q -"maximum aerodynamic pressure" in space jargon

Morse Code - An early form of communication using a system of dots and dashes, short and long sounds,
which represent the letters of the alphabet, numbers and punctuation marks. Morse Code can be sent
over wires, as flashes of light, as sound and was most commonly used in radiotelegraphy and is still in use
today primarily by
Ham Radio operators. It was invented between 1830-40 by Samuel F.B. Morse. (see my
old telegraph key and Ham Radio rig)

NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formulated in Washington D.C. in 1949 for the purpose of
collective defense against aggression, at that time primarily to guard against the Soviet Union and its east
European allies. NATO was made up of 12 Atlantic rim nations with America and Britain as leading members.
Other important nations on the European continent included West Germany, Greece and Turkey which
were geographically close to the red Communist threat.

NBC - National Broadcasting Company

Piezoelectric Effect - When a voltage is applied across a thin wafer of quartz crystal it will vibrate at a fixed
frequency which is determined by its physical size (thickness).  And conversely, when pressure is applied
to a quartz crystal wafer it will produce a voltage which is proportional to the amount of pressure that is
applied to it.  A crystal microphone best demonstrates the latter principle, when sound waves impact the
crystal diaphragm a small voltage is generated which changes in step with intensity of the sound.  And in a
similar way Laika's blood pressure pressed the crystal and produced a weak (signal) voltage.

QSL Card -  is a station verification report. QSL is a radio amateur "Q signal" and means "I am
acknowledging receipt"

RCA - an old trademark logo from the radio age standing for "Radio Corporation of America”

RIG - Ham Radio jargon referring to the radio equipment type used by an operator.

Resistance - in a circuit - is the opposition to the flow of electrical current and it is measured in units
called Ohms. Resistance in electrical circuits can be good and bad. Resistance in long power lines causes
a loss of energy in the form of heat. However, resistance can be put to good use by changing the behavior
of electronic circuits. Special components called resistors, most commonly made of carbon in different
amounts for different resistances, are built into circuits for a range of desired effects. Example, with
applied voltage constant in a circuit, if circuit resistance is increased then current will decrease and if
resistance is decreased then current will increase.  This effect is expressed in Ohms Law which
mathematically defines the relationship between Voltage , Current and Resistance within an electrical
circuit.  The rubber tube around LAIKA’S chest was impregnated with carbon and worked like a variable
resistor (rheostat) by changing resistance as it was physically stretched by her breathing. Therefore the
current passing through it changed accordingly (inversely to the resistance) and created a changing
electrical signal that moved in step with LAIKA’S respiration.

SAC - Strategic Air Command -the early Cold War era U.S. Air Force command charged with intercontinental
air strikes against any enemy country, namely the USSR -Soviet Union (Russia) at the time.

SEP - space jargon for "separation" of a rocket stage (or "staging")

SHORTWAVE see SW below, also known as High Frequency (HF)- a band of frequencies 3 to 30 megahertz

Signal - Is any electronic current or voltage value or electromagnetic (radio or light) wave or sound wave
which represents or carries information or data.

Silent Key - radio jargon for a
deceased Ham operator - Silent Key, meaning his telegraph key is silent.

SKIP see SW below

Sputnik - means "fellow traveler" in Russian and was a generic name given to early Soviet earth orbiting
satellites.  Beginning in the early sixties "Cosmos" plus a sequential number became the generic cover all
name for many different types of satellite missions. This provided a convenient way of explaining away
military related and spy type missions as being, "another research satellite in the Kosmos series".

SW - abbreviation for Short-Wave - a band of frequencies between 3 and 30 MHz.  The main characteristic
of these frequencies is their ability to "SKIP" off the ionosphere and propagate over long distances,
making possible world-wide communications when atmospheric conditions are good.  Also called HF
                                                                     
SWL - abbreviation for Short Wave Listener

TASS - the news agency of the former Soviet Union

Telemetry - means measuring from a distance

Transducer - An energy converter which changed Laika's chest movement (mechanical energy) into
electrical energy or (also see above)- signal that was radioed back down to earth.

UHF - abbreviation for Ultra High Frequency - from 300 to 3000 Megahertz - Characteristics - line of sight

Uplink - an earth based radio transmission radiated toward a spacecraft

USSR - abbreviation for "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" also called Soviet Union or Russia.  The
Soviet Empire was dissolved in December 1991 marking the end of the Cold War.

VHF - abbreviation for Very High Frequency - from 30 to 300 Megahertz - Characteristics - NORMALLY line
of sight

VOX - is a voice operated switch or sound activated switch that can be used for a multitude of applications
such as turning on/off a tape recorder, radio transmitter, lights, burglar alarm, etc.

WWII - World War 2 -the worldwide war between the aggressive, brutal Axis nations, Germany, Japan, Italy,
and the Allied nations, England, America, Canada, Russia and others- fought from Sept.1, 1939 till the final
victory over Japan on Aug.14, 1945. Referred to as “The Great Patriotic War” by Russians.

WWV - A powerful SW radio station located in Fort Collins, Colorado that provides an accurate TIME and
FREQUENCY service at the frequencies of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 Megahertz (mHz).  NOTE- The WWV 20 mHz
transmission was only five Kilohertz (kHz) away from the weak Sputnik signal.  In an unusual move, the
WWV 20mHz transmission was turned off, at times, to keep it from drowning out the feeble one watt signal
from Sputnik.

WWW - World Wide Web

ZZZZ - a FLASH or TOP PRIORITY RADIO MESSAGE mainly used in Morse Code (CW)
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